Second International Workshop (Bulawayo, Zimbabwe; 8-12 April 1991)

I. Recomendations of the Second International Small Millets Workshop:

1. The workshop recomended the establishment of a Tropical Small Millets Network (TSMN) fot the eight crops - finger millet, foxtail millet, proso millet, tef, fonio, little millet, barnyard millet and kodo millet with primary focus on Africa and Asia. Although a single network is to be established at the present time, crop and continent-specific networks, within this overall network, can be formed at a later date.

2. The present steering committee is to continue up to the next workshop and be given the authority to include other network members as needed.

3. A newsletter for small millets is recommended, to be published twice a year. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi is willing to help in publication and distribution. The newsletter will serve as promotional media for policy makers, as well as media for exchange of ideas and disseminating information. There will be two editors, one from India and another from Africa to coordinate the publication.

4. The group recommended the production of a publication on processing and utilization of small millets. Dr. D.A.V. Dendy will coordinate this activity and ensure the publication of the book.

5. All small millets workers should receive Semi-Arid Tropics Crop Research Information System (SATCRIS) (from International Crops Research Institue for the Semi-Arid tropics), with abstracts of crop/crops on which they are working.

6. The Third International workshop should be planned in 1996 in Uganda/China.

7. Studies on production to consumption systems coupled with socioeconomic conditions are needed to identify the constraints and priorities in small millets.

8. The information unit of International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) may be given the responsibility to develop a database on the available literature and manpower.

9. This workshop recognized that finger millet is the most important among small millets and more research attention should be given to improve this crop. this workshop recommends that International Crops research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) should include finger millet as its mandate crop and conduct necessary research on crop improvement, and farming systems, conduct international trials/nurseries and assist in training.

10. The group felt the urgent need to conserve and make available to all network members these small millet life support species for present use and posterity. It is recommended that the following centers be given responsibility to assemble, maintain evaluate conserve and distribute germplasm on a global basis.
1. Teff: Plant Genetic Resource Unit, Ethiopia
2. Fonio: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Sahelian Centre, Niamey, Niger
3. Finger Millet: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) East Africa/Southern African Development Coordination Committee/ International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (SADCC/ICRISAT) Southern African Development Coordination Committee (SADCC) genebank, and International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)
4. Foxtail millet Proso millet International Crops Research Barnyard millet Institute for the Semi-Arid Kodo millet Tropics (ICRISAT) at Patancheru Little Millet Hyderabad

11. International Board for Plant Genetic Resources/International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (IBPGR/ICRISAT) should assist the national programmes to complete the collection and characterization of landraces and wild relatives of finger millet and other small millets. The primary areas for collections of finger millet are: East Africa: Ethiopia, Uganda, Ruanda, and Kenya Southern Africa: Tanzania, Zambia Asia: Nepal, Bhutan and India There needs to be a free flow of materials among the network countries.

12. Tef is a prized cereal extensively in Ethiopia for food and forage. Breeding for improved tef cultivars should be taken up by the national programme with the following abjectives:
1. High yieldand grain quality
2. Moisture stress/water logging
3. Lodging resistance
4. Training of scientists in cytogenetics

13. In South Asia, the area under small millets is declining. Although high yielding cultivars are bred, they are not finding their way to farmers fields due to lack of understanding of the farmer's needs and constaints, and lack of effective outreach programmes including seed production. More understanding of the marketing opportunities and utilization is needed. Rapid Rural Appraisal is required to understand these problems in depth. The national programmes may concentrate on on-farm research as an important component of their programme.

14. The workshop recognizes that finger millet cultivation is labour intensive. The national programmes may look into the possibility of developing labour saving implements for finger millet cultivation.

15. The national programmes should be encouraged to find alternative uses and promote the potential of small millets as weaning food, beverages and value added products.

16. The need for trained manpower in small millets was keenly felt by many national programme.

17. The application of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) techniqques to characterize germplasm, and to identify true crosses in larger breeding programmes is recommended.

18. It is recommended that an asian regional project on small millet agronomy and breeding be developed through Coarse Grain, Root-Crops, Pulses and Tubers/Food and Agricultural Organization (CGRPT/FAO).

19. Training on processing and utilization should be organized. Central Food Technology Research Institute/All India Small Millets Improvement Project (CFTRI/AICSMIP) India may be considered as an appropriate place for this.

20. Since these activities require funding, prospective donors are to be approached with proposals for funding the recommended network activities.

21. National Programmes in Asia and Africa are encouraged to develop suitable project proposals in priority areas of their region for funding from prospective donors.

22. It is recommended that the proceedings of this workshop be published.

II. Papers:

Introduction Hugh Doggett

Section I: Country Reports from Africa

1. Development, current and future research strategies on finger millet in Zimbabwe. J.N. Mushonga, F.R. Muza and H.H. Dhliwayo.

2. Status of finger millet (Elusine coracana Gaertn.) in Zambia. B.L. Agrawal, J.A. Siame and G.T. Uprichard.

3. Past and present research on finger millet in Malawi. P.H. Mnyenyembe.

4. Status of finger millet (Elusine coracana) in Tanzania. H.S. Chambo.

5. Finger millet importance and improvement in Ethiopia. Tadesse Mulatu and Yilma Kebede.

6. Teff crop improvement, nutrition and utilization. Seyfu Ketema.

7. Small millets production and research in Kenya. C.O. Oduori.

8. Improvement of finger millet in Uganda. S.E. Odelle.

9. Fonio millet (Digitaria exilis Stapf) in West Africa. Mbaye Ndoye and Christian C. Nwasike.

Section II: Reports from Asian Countries and the World

10. Recent developments in foxtail millet cultivation and research in China. Chen Jiaju and Qi Yuzhi.

11. Importance, cultivation and breeding of proso millet in Povolzhye Province in Russia. V.A. Ilyin, E.N. Zolotukhin, I.P. Ungenfukht, N.P. Tikhonov and B.K. Markin.

12. Present Status of Small Millets Production in India. K.V. Bondale.

13. Finger Millet in Nepal: Overview, Progress, Problems and Prospects. Kishore Sherchan and Bimal K. Baniya.

14. Cultivation of Finger Millet (Elusine coracana L.) and Other Small Millets in Sri Lanka. S. Ponnuthurai.

15. Present Status of Millet Research and Production in Bangladesh. Md. Hilalul Islam.

16. Structure and Characteristics of the World Millet Economy. J.P. Marathee.

Section III: Production to Consumption - Concepts and Studies

17. Production to Consumption System: An Approach to Improving Research Decisions. L.N. Navarro and O.G. Schmidt.

18. Use of Samuhik Bhraman (Rapid Rural Appraisal) in Nepal. Ramesh Khardka.

19. Finger Millet in Nepal: Importance, Farming Systems, and Utilization in a Socioeconomic Context. K.W. Riley, P.B. Shakya, R.P. Upreti and S. Vaidya.

20. A Study of Small Millets in Karnataka and Orissa - Patterns of Consumption, Utilizatiion, Production and Technology Adoption. K.G. Krishnamurty.

21. Finger Millet Production and Utization in Kenya. B.N. Mitaru, J.T. Karugia and C. Munene.

Section IV: Processing utilization and Marketing

22. Opportunities for Non-Traditional Uses of the Minor Millets. D.A.V. Dendy.

23. Nutritional and Technological Characteristics of Small Millets and Preparation of Value-Added Products from Them. N.G. Malleshi and N.A. Hadimani.

24. Preliminary Studies on Grain Quality Evaluation for Finger Millet as a Food and Beverage Use in the Southern African Region. M.I. Gomez.

25. Variation in Chemical Composition and Digestibility of Finger Millet (Elusine coracana) Straw. A. Subba Rao, Ulhas H. Prabhu, S.R. Sampath and S.J. Oosting.

26. Opportunities to Exploit a Premium Market Niche for Finger Millet in the SADCC Region. D.D. Rohrbach and Kizito Mazvimavi. Section V: Diversity, Classification and Germplasm resources

27. Diversity in the Small Millets Cillection at ICRISAT. K.E. Prasada Rao, J.M.J. de Wet, V. Gopal Reddy and M.H. Mengesha.

28. Pattern of Variability in Relation to Domestication of Finger Millet in Africa and India. B.J. Naik, B.T. Shankare Gowda and A. Seetharam.

29. Application of Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism to the Characterization of Small Millets Germplasm. Khidir W. Hilu.

30. Distribution and Collection of Finger Millet (Elusine) in East and Southern Africa. A.F. Attere.

31. Characterization and Evaluation of Local Finger Millet Landraces of Nepal. Bimal K. Baniya, K.W. Riley, K.K. Sherchan and D.M.S. Dongol.

32. Present Status of Foxtail Millet and Proso Millet Genetics Resources Conservation in China. Chen Jiaju. Section VI: Breeding and Diseases

33. Principles for Breeding Small Millets. D.J. Andrews.

34. Outbreeding in Field Grown teff (Eragrastis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) K. Kedir, B.M.G. Jones and T. Mengiste.

35. Models for Improvement: Genetic Advancement of Eragrostis tef with Particular Regard to Lodging. M. Cheverton, M. Pullan, F. Didehvar, A. Greig and G. Chapman.

36. Blast Resistance in Finger Millet - Its Inheritance and Biochemical Nature. A. Seetharam and R.L. Ravikumar.

37. Abstructs of Studies on Finger Millet Disease. A. Ekwamu et al. Section VII: Farming Systems and technology Transfer 38. Small Millets in Himalayan Hills of Uttar Pradesh. D. Mohan.

39. Maize and Finger Millet Relay Intercropping System in the Hills of Nepal: Its Constraints, Research Findings and Prospects. B.R. Sthapit, P.M. Pradhanang, R.J. Khadka and K.D. Subedi.

40. An Overview of Technology Transfer and Its Impact on Finger Millet Production in Karnataka. B.K. Linge Gowda, E.G. Ashok and M. Chandrappa.

Section VIII: Networks

41. Southern Africa Regional Finger Millet Improvement Programme. S.C. Gupta.

42. Finger Millet Improvement in Eastern Africa. V.Y. Guiragossian and S.Z. Mukuru.